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ايل تركي كشكولي بزرگ٬ از اتحاديه طوائف تركان آذربايجاني جنوب ايران قشقائي

KASHKULI BOZORG, one of the five major tribes of the Qashqai (Qashqai) tribal confederacy of Fars province. Its name is probably derived from kashkul, a word of Arabic origin, but used in both Persian and Turkish, to denote a bowl, or hollowed-out gourd, carried by shepherds or mendicant dervishes. Some claim that the Kashkuli are of Kurdish origin and came from the Kermanshah region (Beck, p. 182; Magee, p. 79). But because the Qashqai tribal confederacy was a union of Turkic tribes and many of the Kashkuli tiras, or clans, have Turkic names, it is more likely that the Kashkuli tribe was of Turkic origin, but that it absorbed some Kurdish and Lori tribes after the downfall of the Zand dynasty at the end of the 18th century. On the other hand, the ruling family of the tribe is almost certainly of Zand origin (Beck, pp. 182-83; Magee, pp. 79 and 92; Garrod, p. 40). According to Magee, the first Zand kalantar (chief) of the tribe was a certain Hosayn Khan Zand, who accompanied Karim Khan Zand to Fars and whose daughter, Nazli, married Jani Khan, the first ilkhani (paramount chief) of the Qashqai tribal confederacy (p. 92).

Esmail Khan Sowlat-al-Dowla (q.v.), who was the ilkhani of the Qashqai tribal confederacy almost continually between 1904 and 1930, had a Kashkuli mother and a Kashkuli wife. Yet he was on very bad terms with most of the Kashkuli khans. During the years prior to World War I, a major disagreement arose between some of these khans and the Qashqai leader over one of the tribe's main sources of revenue, namely the exaction of tolls on the Kazerun stretch of the Bushehr-Shiraz route, which crosses Kashkuli territory. As a result, the Kashkuli khans supported the British in their struggle against Sowlat-al-Dowla and the German agent, Wilhelm Wassmuss, during the war. After the war, Sowlat-al-Dowla punished the Kashkuli. He dismissed the Kashkuli leaders who had opposed him and "deliberately set out to break up and impoverish the Kashkuli tribe" (Magee, p. 79). Two sections of the tribe, which consisted of elements which had been loyal to Sowlat-al-Dowla, were then separated from the main body of the tribe and given the status of independent tribes, becoming the Kashkuli Kuchek ("Little Kashkuli") and Qarachahi tribes. The remaining tribe became known as the Kashkuli Bozorg ("Big Kashkuli") tribe.

All three sections of the tribe suffered great hardship under the harsh rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941), when they were compelled to adopt a sedentary way of life without adequate preparations (Magee, p. 79). The Kashkuli Bozorg leaders Elias Khan and Esfandiar Khan played an important role in the tribal rebellion of Fars in 1929 (Kava Bayat, pp. 42, 49, 50, 58, 66, 93, 126, and 133), and in 1932 both leaders were exiled to northern Persia (Magee, pp. 79, 90-91).
Following the abdication of Reza Shah in 1941, the Kashkuli Bozorg, like all the tribespeople of Persia, were once more able to resume their pastoral way of life. Elias Khan and Esfandiar Khan returned home, but they remained independent of the authority of the Qashqai ilkhani (Schulze-Holthus, p. 282), a fact which Sohrab Khan, Elias Khan's son, underscored when I interviewed him in April 1957.
After World War II, Elias Khan served as a representative in the Majles (Parliament). In spite of their at times troubled relationship with the Qashqai ilkhanis, leaders of the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe formed part of the core group of Qashqai insurgents against the government of the Islamic Republic in the mountains of southern Fars in the early 1980's (Beck, pp. 329-31).

The winter quarters of the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe are around Kazerun, as well as around Ùenar SHahijan, Mahur-e Milati, Baba Kalan, and Bakesh, to the northwest of that city. Its summer quarters are around Ardakan, Komehr and Kakan, in northwestern Fars. According to an Iranian Army list of the tribes of Fars, in 1958 the tribe consisted of the following tiras, the number of households being in parentheses: Begdili Lori (240), Begdili Torki (69), Goshtasp Lori (50), Goshtasp Torki (140), Jarkani (140), Guri Baha-al-Dini (150), Amala-ye Elias K¨ani (140), Orukhlu (150), Kuruni (190), Jama Bozorgi (75), Ardeshiri (87), Zangana (120), Owlad Mirzai (60), Bolvardi Soleymani (140), Bolvardi Kamandi (70), Korushi (80), Hahnavaz K¨anlu (60), Ùahardah Ùarik (15), SHesh Boluki (10), Gardani (10), Karim K¨ani (60), Uriyad wa Bollu (60), AÚl-e Qoyunlu (50), Amala-e Fereydun K¨ani (70), Qarachahi (30), Salhui (60), Ali Askarlu (70), Ahmad Mahmudi (50), Farhadlu (15), Bolvardi Gardani (60), Guri Bumandi (150), Amala-e Jehangir K¨ani (70), Tayyebi (80), Ùelangar (60), Dizgani (180), Mohammad Saleh (370), Mishan (140), Vanda (40), Bolvardi Azdahakesh (160), Kohvada (80), Buger (60), and Yadkuri (140) (Oberling, pp. 229-30).

According to Iranshahr, the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe comprised 4,862 households in 1963 (Vol. I, p. 145). As Oliver Garrod observed, the Kashkuli Bozorg are "especially noted for their jajims, or tartan woolen blankets, and for the fine quality of their rugs and trappings" (p. 40). The Kashkuli Bozorg are Shiites and speak a Western Ghuz Turkic dialect which they call Turki.

Iraj Afshar-Sistani, Ilha, chadorneshinan wa tawayef-e ashayeri-e Iran, Tehran, 1987, p. 628.
Kava Bayat, SHuresh-e ashayeri-e Fars, Tehran, 1987.
Lois Beck, The Qashqai of Iran, New Haven, 1986.
Oliver Garrod, "The Nomadic Tribes of Persia To-Day," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 33, 1946, pp. 32-46.
Komisiun-e melli-e Yunesko (UNESCO) dar Iran, Iranshahr, 2 vols., 1963-65.
G. F. Magee, The Tribes of Fars, Simla, 1945.
Pierre Oberling, The Qashqai Nomads of Fars, The Hague, 1974.
Berthold Schulze-Holthus, Daybreak in Iran, London, 1954.
Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson, Report on Fars, Simla, 1916.


ايل تركي فارسيمدان٬ از اتحاديه طوائف تركان آذربايجاني جنوب ايران قشقائي

FARSIMADAN, one of the most important tribes of the Qashqai tribal confederacy. The popular explanation of the name is that it is a mispronunciation of Farsinadan (Those who do not know Persian) or Farsimidan (Those who know Persian; Magee, p. 54). The Farsimadan claim that they are of Khalaj origin, and that, before moving to southern Persia, they dwelled in Khalajestan, a region southwest of Tehran (Magee, p. 54; Garrod, p. 294). They also believe that the tribe spent some time in the Kuhgiluya before ending up in the province of Fars (Magee, p. 54). In any case, the tribe was already in Fars by the late 16th century, for it is known that in the month of Dhu'l-hejja 998/October 1590 their leader, Abu'l-Qasem Beyg and some of his followers were punished for having sided with Yaqub Khan, the Dhu'l-Qadr governor of Fars, in a revolt against Shah Abbas I (Fasai, I, p. 124, ed. Rastgar, I, p. 434; for further details concerning this rebellion, see Eskandar Beg, I, pp. 418-26, 431-37, tr. Savory, II, pp. 595-611).

Like all nomads in Persia, the Farsimadan suffered greatly during the reign of Rezµa Shah Pahlavi (1304-20 ˆ./1925-41). His establishment of direct government rule and taxation, introduction of compulsory conscription, imposition of European dress, appointment of brutal and corrupt military governors to supervise tribal activity, and particularly his forced sedentarization policy, played havoc with the lives of the Farsimadan and their pastoral economy. As early as 1929, Masih Khan, the chief (kalantar) of the Farsimadan tribe, played a leading role in a major tribal uprising in Fars (Oberling, pp. 155-56). In 1933, Masih Khan and his eldest son, Aman-Allah Khan, were sent to Tehran and detained there. Masih Khan died shortly thereafter, presumably of natural causes (Oberling, p. 166). Meanwhile, as a consequence of Rezµa Shah's forced sedentarization policy, the Farsimadan temporarily abandoned their nomadic way of life. About a thousand families of them settled down in the tribe's summer quarters and the remainder of them settled down in the tribe's winter quarters. In 1937, the Farsimadan lost many of their animals when they were forced to leave their flocks in the district of Kamfiruz (Magee, p. 54). Upon the abdication of Rezµa Shah in 1941, the Farsimadan resumed their nomadic existence, and they have managed to retain their traditional way of life ever since (Komisiun-e melli, I, p. 147; Afshar Sistani, p. 628). A new period of hardship started in 1980, when, following the Revolution of 1978, the Revolutionary Guards launched a campaign against the nomadic tribes of Fars (Beck, p. 331).

The Farsimadan tribe contains the following tiras, or clans: Qara Mir ˆamlu, T®awabe, Awlad (the tira of the chief), Koranlu, Doganlu, Kalbelu (i.e., Kalb-Alilu), ˆeybanlu, Amala, Qasemlu, Gorjai (Georgians), Morol (Mogol), Machanlu, Musellu, Z®ohrablu, and Yandranlu (Oberling, p. 228). Its summer quarters are north and northeast of the Kuh-e Dena range, halfway between Behbahan and Abada. Its winter quarters are between Lake Famur and the Kuh-e Gisakan range, south of Kazerun (Oberling, p. 228).

The population of the Farsimadan was estimated by Aman-Allah Khan Farsimadan at 1,750 families in 1956 (Oberling, p. 228), by Komisiun-e melli (p. 147) at 1,505 families in 1963, and by Afshar Sistani (p. 628) at 2,715 families, or 12,394 individuals, in 1982.
See also AFGHANISTAN iv.

Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see "Short References"):
I. Afshar Sistani, Ilha, chadorneshinan, wa tÂawayef-e ashayeri-e Iran, 2 vols., Tehran, 1366 ˆ./1987.
L. Beck, The Qashqai of Iran, New Haven, 1986.
G. Demorgny, "Les re‚formes administratives en Perse: Les tribus du Fars," RMM 22, 1913, pp. 98-99.
H. Field, Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran, Chicago, 1939, p. 220.
O. Garrod, "The Qashqai Tribe of Fars," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 33, 1946, pp. 293-306.
Kayhan, Jografia II, p. 79. Komisiun-e melli-e Yunesko (UNESCO) dar Iran, Iran-shahr, 2 vols., Tehran, 1343 ˆ./1964.
G. F. Magee, The Tribes of Fars, Simla, 1945.
P. Oberling, The Qashqai Nomads of Fars, The Hague, 1974.