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ايل تركي كشكولي بزرگ٬ از اتحاديه طوائف تركان آذربايجاني جنوب ايران قشقائي
KASHKULI BOZORG, one of the five major tribes of the Qashqai (Qashqai) tribal confederacy of Fars province. Its name is probably derived from kashkul, a word of Arabic origin, but used in both Persian and Turkish, to denote a bowl, or hollowed-out gourd, carried by shepherds or mendicant dervishes. Some claim that the Kashkuli are of Kurdish origin and came from the Kermanshah region (Beck, p. 182; Magee, p. 79). But because the Qashqai tribal confederacy was a union of Turkic tribes and many of the Kashkuli tiras, or clans, have Turkic names, it is more likely that the Kashkuli tribe was of Turkic origin, but that it absorbed some Kurdish and Lori tribes after the downfall of the Zand dynasty at the end of the 18th century. On the other hand, the ruling family of the tribe is almost certainly of Zand origin (Beck, pp. 182-83; Magee, pp. 79 and 92; Garrod, p. 40). According to Magee, the first Zand kalantar (chief) of the tribe was a certain Hosayn Khan Zand, who accompanied Karim Khan Zand to Fars and whose daughter, Nazli, married Jani Khan, the first ilkhani (paramount chief) of the Qashqai tribal confederacy (p. 92).
Esmail Khan Sowlat-al-Dowla (q.v.), who was the ilkhani of the Qashqai tribal confederacy almost continually between 1904 and 1930, had a Kashkuli mother and a Kashkuli wife. Yet he was on very bad terms with most of the Kashkuli khans. During the years prior to World War I, a major disagreement arose between some of these khans and the Qashqai leader over one of the tribe's main sources of revenue, namely the exaction of tolls on the Kazerun stretch of the Bushehr-Shiraz route, which crosses Kashkuli territory. As a result, the Kashkuli khans supported the British in their struggle against Sowlat-al-Dowla and the German agent, Wilhelm Wassmuss, during the war. After the war, Sowlat-al-Dowla punished the Kashkuli. He dismissed the Kashkuli leaders who had opposed him and "deliberately set out to break up and impoverish the Kashkuli tribe" (Magee, p. 79). Two sections of the tribe, which consisted of elements which had been loyal to Sowlat-al-Dowla, were then separated from the main body of the tribe and given the status of independent tribes, becoming the Kashkuli Kuchek ("Little Kashkuli") and Qarachahi tribes. The remaining tribe became known as the Kashkuli Bozorg ("Big Kashkuli") tribe.
All three sections of the tribe suffered great hardship under the harsh rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941), when they were compelled to adopt a sedentary way of life without adequate preparations (Magee, p. 79). The Kashkuli Bozorg leaders Elias Khan and Esfandiar Khan played an important role in the tribal rebellion of Fars in 1929 (Kava Bayat, pp. 42, 49, 50, 58, 66, 93, 126, and 133), and in 1932 both leaders were exiled to northern Persia (Magee, pp. 79, 90-91).
Following the abdication of Reza Shah in 1941, the Kashkuli Bozorg, like all the tribespeople of Persia, were once more able to resume their pastoral way of life. Elias Khan and Esfandiar Khan returned home, but they remained independent of the authority of the Qashqai ilkhani (Schulze-Holthus, p. 282), a fact which Sohrab Khan, Elias Khan's son, underscored when I interviewed him in April 1957.
After World War II, Elias Khan served as a representative in the Majles (Parliament). In spite of their at times troubled relationship with the Qashqai ilkhanis, leaders of the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe formed part of the core group of Qashqai insurgents against the government of the Islamic Republic in the mountains of southern Fars in the early 1980's (Beck, pp. 329-31).
The winter quarters of the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe are around Kazerun, as well as around Ùenar SHahijan, Mahur-e Milati, Baba Kalan, and Bakesh, to the northwest of that city. Its summer quarters are around Ardakan, Komehr and Kakan, in northwestern Fars. According to an Iranian Army list of the tribes of Fars, in 1958 the tribe consisted of the following tiras, the number of households being in parentheses: Begdili Lori (240), Begdili Torki (69), Goshtasp Lori (50), Goshtasp Torki (140), Jarkani (140), Guri Baha-al-Dini (150), Amala-ye Elias K¨ani (140), Orukhlu (150), Kuruni (190), Jama Bozorgi (75), Ardeshiri (87), Zangana (120), Owlad Mirzai (60), Bolvardi Soleymani (140), Bolvardi Kamandi (70), Korushi (80), Hahnavaz K¨anlu (60), Ùahardah Ùarik (15), SHesh Boluki (10), Gardani (10), Karim K¨ani (60), Uriyad wa Bollu (60), AÚl-e Qoyunlu (50), Amala-e Fereydun K¨ani (70), Qarachahi (30), Salhui (60), Ali Askarlu (70), Ahmad Mahmudi (50), Farhadlu (15), Bolvardi Gardani (60), Guri Bumandi (150), Amala-e Jehangir K¨ani (70), Tayyebi (80), Ùelangar (60), Dizgani (180), Mohammad Saleh (370), Mishan (140), Vanda (40), Bolvardi Azdahakesh (160), Kohvada (80), Buger (60), and Yadkuri (140) (Oberling, pp. 229-30).
According to Iranshahr, the Kashkuli Bozorg tribe comprised 4,862 households in 1963 (Vol. I, p. 145). As Oliver Garrod observed, the Kashkuli Bozorg are "especially noted for their jajims, or tartan woolen blankets, and for the fine quality of their rugs and trappings" (p. 40). The Kashkuli Bozorg are Shiites and speak a Western Ghuz Turkic dialect which they call Turki.
Iraj Afshar-Sistani, Ilha, chadorneshinan wa tawayef-e ashayeri-e Iran, Tehran, 1987, p. 628.
Kava Bayat, SHuresh-e ashayeri-e Fars, Tehran, 1987.
Lois Beck, The Qashqai of Iran, New Haven, 1986.
Oliver Garrod, "The Nomadic Tribes of Persia To-Day," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 33, 1946, pp. 32-46.
Komisiun-e melli-e Yunesko (UNESCO) dar Iran, Iranshahr, 2 vols., 1963-65.
G. F. Magee, The Tribes of Fars, Simla, 1945.
Pierre Oberling, The Qashqai Nomads of Fars, The Hague, 1974.
Berthold Schulze-Holthus, Daybreak in Iran, London, 1954.
Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson, Report on Fars, Simla, 1916.